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Aesthetics research

The research section of the website contains aesthetics-related research carried out by specialists around the world, including Dr Leonie Schelke, Dr Peter Velthuis, Dr Tom Decates, Dr Jonathan Kadouch & Dr Tom van Eijk.

The information is updated automatically on a daily basis.

Abstracts & full-text articles are provided, where available.

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Recent articles include:

Leonie Schelke, Peter Velthuis, Jonathan Kadouch

PMID: 38955457

Int J Dermatol. 2024 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/ijd.17355. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vascular adverse events (VAEs) occurring during injections of soft-tissue fillers are still considered a challenging issue for both patients and practitioners. Hyaluronidase can dissolve hyaluronic acid (HA)-based soft-tissue fillers during a VAE. For VAEs induced by non-HA fillers, the absence of an "antidote" is regarded as exceptionally challenging.

METHODS: This multicenter study describes a case series of three VAEs induced by non-HA fillers, for which ultrasound-guided hyaluronidase injections were incorporated into the treatment approach.

RESULTS: Two cases of calcium hydroxylapatite and one case of poly-L-lactic acid-induced VAEs are described, all of which were resolved without necrosis or scarring using a treatment approach with ultrasound-guided hyaluronidase injections.

CONCLUSIONS: Unlike the mechanical hypothesis, which assumes filler particles travel antegrade to block arterioles in a large skin area, we hypothesize vasoconstriction as the pivot in VAEs. Filler injection-induced spasms could lead to long-lasting vasoconstriction of the perforator arteries stemming from the central facial arteries. Our results underscore that perforasome vasoconstriction might be the leading cause of the ischemia and subsequent necrosis in VAEs and that relaxation of these perforasomes, rather than dissolving the filler material, resolves the clinical symptoms associated with VAEs.

Hyung-Jin Lee

PMID: 38942935

Surg Radiol Anat. 2024 Jun 28. doi: 10.1007/s00276-024-03429-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasonography (US) has become an essential tool for guiding botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections in facial muscles, enhancing precision and safety. This narrative review explores the role of US in BoNT administration, particularly in complex anatomical regions, highlighting its impact on treatment customization, real-time visualization, and complication reduction.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library for articles published from January 2018 to December 2023. Search terms included "Botulinum neurotoxin," "facial anatomy," "ultrasonography guided injection," and "facial muscle sonoanatomy." Studies focusing on US-guided BoNT injections in facial muscles were included. Data extraction and synthesis were performed independently by two reviewers, focusing on study design, ultrasonography techniques, outcomes, and conclusions.

RESULTS: The review found that US guidance significantly enhances the precision of BoNT injections by providing real-time visualization of facial muscles and blood vessels, thereby reducing the risk of adverse events. US enables tailored injection strategies, ensuring symmetrical facial expressions and minimizing over-treatment. The technique also offers immediate feedback, allowing for on-the-spot adjustments to improve treatment efficacy and safety. However, the review identified limitations, including potential selection bias and variability in US techniques across different studies.

CONCLUSION: US guidance for BoNT injections into facial muscles offers substantial benefits in terms of precision, safety, and treatment customization. Despite the identified limitations, the integration of US into clinical practice is poised to enhance patient outcomes in aesthetic and therapeutic procedures. Further research is needed to standardize US techniques and broaden the inclusivity of studies to validate these findings comprehensively.

David Funt

PMID: 38934231

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2024 Jun 27. doi: 10.1111/jocd.16436. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA)-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)+ has unique properties that make it optimal for lifting, contouring, and defining the jawline. This long-term follow-up of a randomized, multicenter, rater-blinded trial reports efficacy and safety of CaHA-CMC(+) through 48 and up to 60 weeks post-treatment.

METHODS: Eligible patients were randomized (2:1) to the treatment or the control/delayed treatment group to receive CaHA-CMC(+) injections in both jawlines. While touch-ups were permitted 4 weeks post-treatment for both groups, only the treatment group was eligible for optional retreatment after 48 weeks. The primary outcome was ≥1-point improvement on both jawlines on the Merz Jawline Assessment Scale (MJAS); secondary endpoints included the Subject Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (SGAIS) among others. Post hoc analysis included pooling up to 48-week data from the combined treatment and control/delayed groups and 60-week data for the treatment group.

RESULTS: Overall, 175 received treatment. MJAS responder rates were 77.9%, 78.7%, and 62.9% at 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-treatment, respectively. Responder rate on the MJAS at 60 weeks was 74.6% for those who received retreatment and 43.5% for those patients who received only the initial and touchup treatments. SGAIS scores demonstrated 93.4%, 85.6%, and 68.5% of patients rated themselves very much improved after 12, 24, and 48 weeks, respectively. Adverse events consisted of procedure or CaHA-CMC(+)-related events that were mostly resolved and overwhelmingly mild.

CONCLUSIONS: CaHA-CMC(+) produced clinically meaningful and long-lasting improvements in jawline contour and was well tolerated in patients through 60 weeks.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03583359.

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